TIMER: Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource

A comprehensive resource for the clinical relevance of tumor-immune infiltrations

Latest version of TIMER is now available at TIMER2.0.

TIMER is a web resource for systematical evaluations of the clinical impact of different immune cells in diverse cancer types. The abundance of six immune cell types: B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, neutrphil, macrophage and dendritic cell in the tumor microenvironment is estimated using a novel statistical method we have developed. The outcome of this method has been validated using pathological estimations.
Two types of analyses are supported in TIMER: 'Clinical' refers to survival analysis of given immune cell type(s) in a selected cancer type; 'Gene' refers to the correlation analysis between a given immune cell type and the expression of a selected gene. The gene can be a putative checkpoint blockade target, cancer/testis antigen or chemokine/receptors. The current release of TIMER incorporated 10,009 samples across 23 cancer types from TCGA. TIMER is developed by Liu lab and Liu lab, with all rights reserved. Please contact Bo Li: bli@jimmy.harvard.edu for any question or suggestion.

Disease Type:

Immune Cell Type:

Analyses Type:

Gene Symbol:

TIMER method source code, statistical analysis and related data files are available here.
To cite TIMER: Li et al. Genome Biology 2016;17(1):174. [PMID: 27549193]